When the World Economic Forum in 2016 made a ranking of the Top 10 Emerging Technologies then
Next Generation Batteries grabbed a prestigious runner-up spot, second only to Internet of Things. The big picture is that both IoT and NGBs undoubtedly will play an important role in our everyday life – but also that each prospective NGB comes with unique scientific and technological promises and challenges.
Two less well researched NGB concepts are the multivalent and metal anode based Ca and Al batteries. We have since ca. 6-7 years researched both these concepts, especially aiming to create new Al conducting electrolytes,1,2 but recently also targeted full batteries at European scale e.g. within CARBAT.3 Herein I will cover the prospects for these NGBs at the end-user level4 and connect to the challenges at hand for all parts of the batteries5 and show our recent developments and proof-of-concept.6
1. “Al Conductive Haloaluminate-Free Non-Aqueous Room-Temperature Electrolytes”, T. Mandai and P. Johansson, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 2015, 3, 12230-12239.
2. “Haloaluminate-Free Cationic Aluminum Complexes: Structural Characterization and Physicochemical Properties”, T. Mandai and P. Johansson, Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2016, 120, 21285-21292.
3. H2020-FETOPEN-1-2016-2017 project CARBAT, grant #766617, https://projects.icmab.es/carbat/.
4. “Multivalent batteries – prospects for high energy density: Ca batteries”, D. Monti, A. Ponrouch, R. B. Araujo, F. Barde, P. Johansson and M. Rosa Palacín, Frontiers in Chemistry, 2019, in press .
5. “Multivalent ion based batteries”, A. Ponrouch, J. Bitenc, R. Diminko, R. Palacín and P. Johansson, Energy Storage Materials, submitted.
6. “Proof-of-concept and electrochemical mechanisms of an Al metal ‒ organic battery”, J. Bitenc, N. Lindahl, A. Vizintin, M. E. Abdelhamid, R. Dominko and P. Johansson, Nature Materials, under review.