Fundamental considerations on energy density, power density and safety of batteries

The presentation will give a brief analysis of the possibilities that the periodic table give us for construction of batteries with high energy densities. As power densities are as important as energy densities, the importance of the characters of electrolyte and electrodes (liquid, solid, porosity, structure), and of the nature of the electrode reactants (solid, liquid, gaseous) will be discussed.

The various points will be illustrated by examples selected among batteries based on O 2, F2 P, S or Cl2 as positive electrodes and H2, Li, C, Na, Mg, Al, and Si as negative electrodes. It is pointed out that the differences between fuel cells, flow batteries and batteries are not of a basic nature, but rather originating from the applied systems and the operation modes of the electrochemical cells.

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